Resources

Mid-IR hollow fiber optics produced by Guiding Photonics are extremely useful in a range of laser delivery and spectroscopy applications including (but not limited to):

  • Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) beam delivery
  • CO2 laser beam delivery for industrial and medical applications
  • Mode-filtering of Mid-IR laser beams for improved beam quality
  • Infrared Counter Measure (IRCM) applications
  • Small volume gas cell for Mid-IR spectroscopy
  • Remote delivery and signal collection for Mid-IR spectroscopy systems
  • Tunable laser-based, as well as broadband, FTIR-based systems.

A sample of specific examples are given below:

University of Bari – Trace Gas Sensing

Vincenzo Spagnolo, Pietro Patimisco, Angelo Sampaolo, et. al., working at the University of Bari, Italy have developed trace gas sensors using quantum enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) with record sensitivity. Hollow fibers from Guiding Photonics are an integral part of their systems. Single-mode hollow fibers deliver the probe QCL beam and improve the beam quality. This improvement to beam quality leads to significantly better SNR compared to using a pin-hole. Additional efforts from the Bari group, which includes a collaboration with Rice University, have further demonstrated the single-mode performance of the Guiding Photonics hollow fibers in additional studies.

uni_bari

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Part-per-trillion level SF6 detection using a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor with single-mode fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4461-4463 (2012).

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, J. M. Kriesel, F. K. Tittel, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Single mode operation with mid-IR hollow fibers in the range 5.1-10.5 µm“, Optics Express 195, DOI:10.1364/OE.23.000195, (2015).

Stanford University – Combustion Diagnostics

Mitchell Spearrin, Jay Jeffries, et. al., working in Ron Hanson’s group at Stanford University, have been developing non-invasive combustion diagnostics utilizing Mid-IR absorption based spectroscopy. Hollow fibers from Guiding Photonics enable remote beam delivery of the laser beams in the harsh, high vibration environment of test facilities, such as scramjet combustors. In one set of experiments, Guiding Photonics produced a custom dual fiber probe, which enabled delivery of two separate laser sources in a common connector.

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R.M. Spearrin, J.B. Jeffries, and R.K. Hanson, “Mid-infrared Absorption Sensor for Measurements of CO and CO2 in Propulsion Flows”, AIAA 2014-0390 (2014).

Princeton University / MIRTHE – Glucose Monitoring

Sabbir Liakat, et. al., working in Claire Gmachl’s group at Princeton University have developed non-invasive glucose monitoring utilizing Mid-IR spectroscopy. Hollow fibers from Guiding Photonics are an integral part of their system and have been used to both deliver the probe laser beam, as well as collect the signal. The hollow fibers not only improve the ease of use by enabling the laser source to be located remotely from the probe tip, they also improve the measurement performance. In particular, use of the fibers lead to improved SNR by mitigating the effects of vibration inherent with making measurements on live patients.

princeton

Sabbir Liakat, Kevin A. Bors, Laura Xu, Callie M. Woods, Jessica Doyle, and Claire F. Gmachl, “Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing on human subjects using mid-infrared light,” Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 7, pp. 2397-2404(2014).

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) – Isotope Analysis

Jim Kelly, et. al., at PNNL have developed extremely sensitive isotope analysis systems that utilize a hollow fiber as the gas cell. The hollow fiber confines the sample and guides a probe laser from a QCL source to an IR detector. The concept, called a Capillary Absorption Spectrometer (CAS), provides a near unity overlap between a sample and a tunable probe laser enabling high precision analysis of extremely small sample volumes. Guiding Photonics’s hollow fibers have significantly improved the performance of such systems and we are now working to transition this technology and develop complete systems.

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J.F. Kelly, R.L. Sams, T.A. Blake, and J.M. Kriesel, “Further developments of capillary absorption spectrometers using small hollow-waveguide fibers”, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8993, DOI: 10.1117/12.2042734 (2014).

Much of the pioneering work on hollow fiber optics (i.e., waveguides) was done by the late Jim Harrington at Rutgers University, and his book (Infrared Fibers and Their Applications) is an excellent summary of the theory, fabrication, and use.

Below is a list of additional publications describing some of the many uses of hollow fibers.

rutgers

General Mid-IR Hollow Fiber:

J. M, Kriesel, N. Gat, B. E. Bernacki, R. L. Erikson, B. D. Cannon, T. L. Myers, C. M. Bledt, and J. A. Harrington, “Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE Vol 8018, DOI: 10.1117/12.882840 (2011).

Jason Kriesel; Nahum Gat; Bruce Bernacki; Tanya Myers; Carlos Bledt; and James Harrington; “Fiber delivery of mid-IR lasers,” (SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201108.003794) August 2011.

C. M. Bledt, J. A. Harrington, and J. M. Kriesel, “Loss and modal properties of Ag/AgI hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 51, 3114-3119 (2012).

R. K. Nubling, J. A. Harrington, “Launch conditions and mode coupling in hollow glass waveguides”, Opt. Eng. 37 (1998).

R. K. Nubling, J. A. Harrington, “Hollow-waveguide delivery systems for high-power, industrial CO2 lasers”, APPLIED OPTICS 34, (1996).

Single-Mode Delivery and Mode-Filtering:

J. M. Kriesel, G. M. Hagglund, N. Gat, V. Spagnolo, and P. Patimisco, “Spatial mode filtering of mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser beams with hollow core fiber optics,” SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8993, DOI: 10.1117/12.2040018 (2013).

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Mihai, M. Giglio, J. Kriesel, D. Sporea, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Low-Loss Coupling of Quantum Cascade Lasers into Hollow-Core Waveguides with Single-Mode Output in the 3.7–7.6 µm Spectral Range“, Sensors, 16(4), 533; doi: 10.3390/s16040533 (2016).

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, J. M. Kriesel, F. K. Tittel, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Single mode operation with mid-IR hollow fibers in the range 5.1-10.5 µm”, Optics Express 195, DOI:10.1364/OE.23.000195, (2015).

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. Giglio, J. M. Kriesel, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Hollow core waveguide as mid-infrared laser modal beam filter, J. Appl. Phys. 118, 113102 (2015)

Advanced Fiber Structures:

Marilena Giglio; Pietro Patimisco; Angelo Sampaolo; Jason M. Kriesel; Frank K. Tittel; Vincenzo Spagnolo, “Low-loss and single-mode tapered hollow-core waveguides optically coupled with interband and quantum cascade lasers,”, Optical Engineering, 57(1), 011004 doi:10.1117/1.OE.57.1.011004 (2017).

C.M. Bledt, J.A. Harrington, and J.M. Kriesel, “Multilayer silver / dielectric thin-film coated hollow waveguides for sensor and laser power delivery applications”, Proc. SPIE Vol. 8218, DOI: 10.1117/12.912196 (2012).

C. M. Bledt, D. V. Kopp, J. A. Harrington, S. Kino, Y. Matsuura and J. M. Kriesel, “Investigation of tapered silver / silver halide coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of CO2 laser radiation”, Proc. SPIE Vol. 8218, DOI: 10.1117/12.912201 (2012).

C.M. Bledt, D.V. Kopp, J.A. Harrington, and J.M. Kriesel, “Multilayer thin film coatings for reduced infrared loss in hollow glass waveguides” Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8011 80112I-1, (2011).

Sensor Use:

Jason M. Kriesel; Camille N. Makarem; Mark C. Phillips; James J. Moran; Max L. Coleman; Lance E. Christensen; James F. Kelly, “Versatile, ultra-low sample volume gas analyzer using a rapid, broad-tuning ECQCL and a hollow fiber gas cell,” Proc SPIE. 10210; doi:10.1117/12.2262612 (2017).

J.F. Kelly, R.L. Sams, T.A. Blake, and J.M. Kriesel, “Further developments of capillary absorption spectrometers using small hollow-waveguide fibers”, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8993, DOI: 10.1117/12.2042734 (2013).

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B.E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Applied Physics B, Lasers and Optics, DOI 10.1007/s00340-013-5388-3 (2013).

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Part-per-trillion level SF6 detection using a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor with single-mode fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4461-4463 (2012).

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